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According to the scripture of Islam, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ cracked the moon, split it into two pieces, and showed it as a miracle to the people of Makkah. This incident has been quoted in numerous Hadith.
People used to ask for a Miracle.
The Arab Pagans such as Walid bin Mughira, Abu Jahl, Answer bin Wail, As bin Hisham, Aswad bin Abdi Yaghus, Aswad bin Muttalib, Zama bin Aswad, Nadr bin Harith used to ask Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to show a miracle so that they could believe that he is a prophet of Allah.
Before migrating to Madinah, people asked him: “If you truly are a Prophet appointed by Allah, then crack/split the moon in half. Let it be so that one-half will appear over Mount Abu Qubais and the other half will be seen over Mount Quayqian.”
On this, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ replied that if he would do so, would they become Muslims? They responded with an immediate “YES”.
Allah Cracked the Moon in Half
Thereby, on the 14th night, the night of the full moon, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ prayed, asking Allah to bless him with the demanded miracle so that the pagans would convert to Islam. Soon, the Angel Jibrael عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ appeared, informing that the prayer had been granted.
As per many Hadith of Islam, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ thereby cracked/split the moon into two halves, on the will of Allah.
Splitting of the Moon – Quran
The Hour has drawn near, and the moon was split in two. – Al-Qamar 54:1
The pagans of Makkah once challenged Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to prove his prophethood by splitting the moon in two. To their surprise, the moon cracked and then rejoined, as witnessed by several people. However, the pagans did not believe and dismissed the miracle as mere magic.
Cracking the Moon – Hadith
Ibn Masud رضي الله عنه said: During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, the moon was split into two parts; one part remained over the mountain, and the other part went beyond the mountain. On that, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, “Witness this miracle.” – Sahih al-Bukhari 4864