Stories from the Holy Quran: Many of the areas that are now deserts used to be areas with greenery and vegetation. Similar is the case with the vast desert occupying much of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The Quran tells us stories in which lands which are green and beautiful with vegetation turned into deserts due to the sins which its people have committed.
Research shows that many civilizations started on the coasts of rivers like the river Indus and river Nile. The people inhabited the places near rivers because water is an essential part of life. People lived near the Nile valley at around 6000 BCE.
Weather conditions of Saudi Arabia were very good at that time: With the passage of time, they started moving out of this area, towards Asia and rest of the world. The main reason why the civilizations came in and settled in Arabia in the first place was the weather conditions caused by monsoon rains.
With the passage of time of about a few centuries, the land turned into a rich green area with a beautiful and moderate environment for living. Apart from humans, the rich green area and water ponds started attracting animals as well as rhinos, elephants, hippos, and crocodiles.
The weather started changing: Soon, the monsoon rains started dying out about 7,300 to 5,500 years ago and the rich soil and green environment started coming back to its original dry and moisture less state. Thus began the start of the Ancient Egyptian civilization to which the inhabitants of the area started to return.
The soil was no longer fit for vegetation, and the rivers started drying up. The rains completely stopped within a time period of 300 years since the monsoon rains stopped. This started drying up the soil slowly and soon the land which had a rich soil and greenery became a desert after almost 1,100 years later.
Empty Quarter or Rubh’ Al Khali: This is the area that we currently call the Empty Quarter or Rubh’ Al Khali, which is the largest desert in the world. It covers large areas of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman and the UAE. The scientists from NASA, after research, have figured out why the monsoon rains stopped.
They stated that this happened due to change in the Earth’s axis. The axis which was at 24.1 degrees shifted to 23.5 degrees, this made the region’s land more exposed to direct sunlight which caused the temperature to rise and the monsoon rains to change their course.
41,000 years ago: The scientists further explained that the change in axis was due to the gravitational pull on the earth due to the other bodies present in the solar system. The scientists also stated that this tilt of 22 and 25 degrees occurs after every 41,000 years or so.
It is predicted that the areas which have become deserts because of the shift in the axis of the Earth are likely to become rich and green once again when the Earth shifts its axis.
Source: The Study