There are in total 14 fard parts of the daily prayer or Salah. These 14 parts must be performed in order for the Salah to be considered valid. These 14 fard parts of the Salah are categorized into 2 main groups which are pre-requisites or before the Salah, and Fard Acts during Salah.[irp]
We have already explained the 7 Fard Acts during Salah omission of which invalidates the Salah. In this article, we shall explain the first seven of these parts which are prerequisites to perform Salah.
1-Cleanliness of the Body: The human body has to be completely clean from all types of impurities, whether they are impurities in effect or they are impurities in fact. One must obtain the purity whether through Wudu i.e. Ablution or in some cases through Ghusl i.e. bathing. Recommended: Procedure to Perform Ghusl properly as per Islam
2-Cleanliness of the Garments worn by the individual: All of the garments that are worn by the individual including gloves, socks, cap etc. must be made sure to be pure and clean beyond any shadow of even the slightest of doubts.
3-Cleanliness of the place of worship: The bare minimum requirement of this condition is that the exact place that the individual intends to be standing or where the knees, forehead or hands of the individual would be resting in Sajdah, must be kept clean of all impurities, whether it be a portion of plain ground, a mat, floor etc. however one should avoid standing for prayer in any place that is stinking and/or has any dirt around of it.
4-Covering of the Satr: For the men, the Satr is the part of the body located between the knee and the navel, for the women, it is the entire body, excluding the hands, face, and feet. Women must also ensure that their ankles are not exposed during the prayer.
5-Determining the correct time for any daily prayer: Each of the five daily prayers has to be performed within a given time limit that has been prescribed for it. If any prayer is performed before the actual time of the prayer, then the prayer will not be considered as a prayer at all. In case the time of the prayer has passed, then a missed prayer, also known as Qada must be offered.
6-Facing in the direction of the Qibla: If any perform performs their prayer with their face pointed towards any direction other than the Qibla i.e. the Holy Kaaba, without having any genuine reason behind it, then the prayer that has been performed will not be counted. Our face should always be towards Qibla Direction. Recommended: 6 ways to find Qibla Direction for Prayers in Unknown Places
7-Making an intention to pray: Making an intention to offer the daily prayers in the mind, which may or may not be expressed by the tongue, to offer any particular daily obligatory prayer at the specific given times, or any missed prayer afterward is necessary.
For the Nafl or Sunnah prayers, the time of the prayer is not necessary to be mentioned in the intention. If any individual is going to be offering a prayer under the leadership of an Imam or prayer congregation leader, one has to state that in their intention as well.