The Islamic New Year is introduced with the sighting of a new moon. The principal month of Muharram is a month of extraordinary reward and temperance. Not only the rewards are greater, but one should avoid committing any sin especially during the month of Muharram.
Four Islamic months share a greater respect than others namely Dhul Qadah, Dhul Hijja, Muharram, and Rajab. Muharram itself means `sacred' and is from those months which have been specified as blessed in the Holy Quran itself.
“Verily the number of months for Allah is twelve months, in this way it was appointed by Allah on the day He made the sky and earth, of them four are blessed.” Quran 9:36
1-At many occasions, Prophet Muhammad S.A.W called the month of Muharram as Allah’s month. It was narrated from Humaid bin ‘Abdur-Rahman- that is Ibn ‘Awf, that Abu Hurairah said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘The best fasting after the month of Ramadan is the month of Allah, Al-Muharram, and the best prayer is prayer at night.'” Sunan an-Nasa'i 1613
2-Prophet Muhammad S.A.W treated the fasting in Muharram as second best after Ramadan. Hazrat Abu Hurairah narrated that: The Messenger of Allah said: “The most virtuous fasting after the month of Ramadan is Allah's month Al-Muharram.” Jami` at-Tirmidhi 740
3-It is not obligatory to fast in the month of Muharram. The one who does, out of his own will and decision, will be qualified for an incredible reward by Allah. The Ahadees stated above tells that fasting in this month carries greater reward among the Nafal fasts.
Therefore, one should take benefit of this chance. Narrated Amma `Aisha R.A: The people used to fast on ‘Ashura (the tenth day of the month of Muharram) before the fasting of Ramadan was made obligatory. And on that day the Holy Kaaba used to be covered with a cover.
When Allah made the fasting of the month of Ramadan compulsory, Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever wishes to fast (on the day of ‘Ashura') may do so, and whoever wishes to leave it can do so.” Sahih al-Bukhari 1592
4-The month of Muharram is a holy month because of the 10 the of Muharram which is a Holy day. The day is named ‘Ashurah'. It is one of the most significant and blessed days of Allah in the Hijri calendar. Prophet of Allah said that that fasting on the day of Ashura' may atone for the sins of the preceding year. Sahih Muslim 1162 a
5-According to Ibn Abbas (R.A) when the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) migrated to Madina, he came to know that the Jews of Madina fast on the 10th of Muharram. It was said that it was the day on which Prophet Musa (A.S) and his supporters crossed the Red Sea bravely, and the Pharaoh drowned in its water.
On listening to this, the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said to his Muslim followers, that we carry a greater right to Hazrat Musa than the Jews, so fast on the day of Ashura. Sahih al-Bukhari 2004
6-It was narrated that Hafsah said: “There are four things which the Prophet never gave up: Fasting ‘Ashura', (fasting during) the ten days, (fasting) three days of each month, and praying two Rak'ahs before Al-Ghadah (Fajr).” – Sunan an-Nasa'i 2416
According to some scholars and hadith, one should fast in a pair, the 9th and 10th of Muharram or the 10th and 11th because Jews used to fast only on the day of Ashura, and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) wanted to maintain a difference of Muslims from Jews. Therefore, He asked Muslims to pair another fast with the day of Ashura.
Every Muslim should observe this important day according to the teaching of Prophet (PBUH) and his Sahabas (R.A), and avoid doing those acts which take away the blessings of Allah from them. May Allah direct us to the right path and help us from doing bad deeds.
Source: Saudi Gazette