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There are 13 fard parts of Salah out of which 7 are pre-requisites farz of Namaz and 6 are performed during the prayer. If you miss any of these farz parts, the Salah is invalidated.
- Even Sajda Sahu cannot compensate for an omission in one of these fard.
- Salah = Namaz.
Pre-requisites Farz of Namaz
As mentioned earlier, there are 7 pre-requisites fard of Salah without which the prayers are invalid.
The first pre-requisite farz of namaz is the cleanliness of the body i.e. Wudu. Your body has to be completely clean from all types of impurities which can be obtained through Wudu or Ghusl.
All of the garments that are worn by the individual including gloves, socks, and caps must be made sure to be pure and clean beyond any shadow of even the slightest of doubts.
Clean Place of Worship
The third pre-requisite fard of Salah is the availability of a clean place of worship. The bare minimum requirement of this condition is that the exact place that the individual intends to be standing or where the knees, forehead, or hands of the individual would be resting in Sujood, must be kept clean of all impurities, whether it be a portion of plain ground, a mat, floor, etc.
Covering the Satr
At all times during prayer, Muslims should ensure that their Satr is covered. Satr refers to the body part which must be covered all the time during Salah. If Satr is uncovered during namaz, it is invalidated.
Another pre-requisite farz of namaz is performing it at its time. Each of the five daily prayers has to be performed within a given time limit that has been prescribed for it.
If any prayer is performed before the actual time of the prayer, then the prayer is invalid. In case the time of the prayer has passed, then a missed prayer, also known as Qada must be offered.
Facing the Qiblah
Salah can only be performed facing the Qiblah as mandated in the Holy Quran.
So turn your face toward al-Masjid al-haram. And wherever you [believers] are, turn your faces toward it [in prayer]. – Al-Baqarah 2:144
The 7th pre-requisite fard of Salah is the niyyah/intention which can be either verbal or in your mind.
For example, if you are praying Duhr, it should be in your mind that you are praying Duhr prayer. Similarly, if you are performing Nafl, the intention should also be the Nafl.
Fard acts during Salah
After fulfilling the pre-requisites, there are 6 more farz acts during Namaz, the commission of which invalidates it.
The first fard act of Salah is the opening Takbeer to begin your Salah. Every Muslim who says prayer must say Allahu-Akbar by raising his hands to start the prayer.
This shall be said in such a way that at least the person himself can hear his voice, and if he forgets it, he has to repeat his prayer.
The 9th fard of Salah is Qiyaam. In case of physical illness or restriction, you can sit and say a prayer but if you have no physical illness or restriction then it is obligatory for you to stand and pray. The period of standing is equivalent to the length of your recitation.
Recitation of the Holy Quran
Recitation of the Holy Quran is an obligatory part of Salah. Recitation of Surah Fatiha followed by some other ayah of the Quran is Wajib acts of Namaz.
The 11th Farz of Naaz is Ruku. Ruku refers to bowing your head and body in prayer. There is a bit of difference between man and woman’s way of Bowing.
To an extent for men, the back should be so straight in level with the floor that if a bowl filled with water is placed on your back, the water does not flow over. However, for the women, it is just enough that their hands reach the knees.
Sajda or prostration is the position in the prayer to bow down so as to touch the floor with the forehead. There are two prostrations in each Rakaah.
If you forget or left out any sajdah deliberately or unintentionally then your prayer will become void.
Qaa’dah Akheerah is the last sitting posture in prayer to recite Tashahudd. It is farz of Namaz to sit in the last rakah of prayer so long that you could recite the whole Tashahudd.
It is wajib act of Salah to sit in the second rakat of Namaz to recite Tashahudd after performing 2 Sujood.
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