Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. Hajj is performed once in a year. A Muslim who is healthy and has sufficient resources must perform a Hajj, once in his/her lifetime. What is Hajj and how shall one perform is not a unique question. All Muslims are quite aware of it. However, what we do not know is that there are 3 types of Hajj.
These 3 types of Hajj are named as Hajj Ifrad, Hajj Qiran, and Tamattu. These Hajj(s) are different from one another in responsibilities and thereby Muslims shall know that what type of Hajj shall they perform and how shall they perform it. So, here is a complete guideline for the Muslims who are having intentions of performing Hajj this year or (Insha Allah) in future.
Hajj Ifrad: Hajj Ifrad is also known as the isolated Hajj. Such a Hajj is not accompanied by Umrah. The one who performs an isolated Hajj is known as Mufrid. Hajj Ifrad is normally performed by those who live within Miqat i.e. who reside within the boundaries e.g. people living in Jeddah. One has to wear the Ihram for Hajj only. His intentions while entering Ihram shall be of performing Hajj.
A person performing Hajj Ifrad cannot perform Umrah. However, if he does perform Umrah during the Islamic months Shawwal, Dhul-Qa’dah and Dhul-Hijjah, he is no longer performing Hajj Ifrad. This means that if an Umrah is performed before performing Hajj rituals (that begin from 8th of Dhul Hijjah), one does NOT remain a Mufrid.
Rather now it is due upon him to perform one of the other two types of Hajj. Now he has to follow the set of instructions of one of the other two types of Hajj. So it is clear that whenever Hajj is performed without Umrah, it is Hajj Ifrad.
A Mufrid cannot exit the state of Ihram until he stones the Shaitan (devil). The stoning at the Jamrah Al Aqabah is done on the day of Eid. A Mufrid can offer a sacrifice of an animal; however, he is not liable to do so. It is not compulsory, yet if he wants to he can.
Hajj Qiran: This type of Hajj is also known as the Accompanied Hajj. Allah Almighty has briefed in Quran that the Hajj Qiran is a concession by Allah towards them who do not live near the sacred Mosque. The one who performs this type of Hajj is known as Qarin.
A Qarin has to wear the Ihram with an intention of performing Hajj and Umrah. The Hajj and Umrah are to be performed in the same Ihram. One cannot leave the Ihram until he has performed both Hajj and Umrah. A Qarin enters an Ihram, performs Umrah and Hajj in it and then leaves the state of Ihram. It must be made clear that Hajj Qiran cannot leave the state of Ihram until his Hajj and Umrah is done, even if there is a long period between Umrah and Hajj, the state of Ihram cannot be exited.
However, a Qarin is liable to perform his Umrah in the months of Shawwal, Dhul-Qa’dah or during the first 8 days of Dhul-Hijjah. The Umrah shall be done before Hajj days starts. On reaching Makkah, Qarin is obliged to first perform a Tawaf and then a sai’. After he is done with Umrah, he shall clip his hair (do not shave them off). It is due upon Qarin to sacrifice an animal that he has brought from within Miqat.
Hajj Tamattu: The one who performs the Hajj Tamattu (which is known as the enjoyable Hajj) is called a Mutamatti. Such a Hajj is also accompanied by Umrah. However, a Mutamatti enters Ihram for Umrah and leaves the state of Ihram, he can then enter a new Ihram for Hajj. While he is not in a state of Ihram (the period when he has done Umrah and has to perform Hajj) he is allowed to do what is forbidden while he is in the state of Ihram.
Normally people coming to Saudi Arabia from all around the world perform Hajj Tamattu. They perform an Umrah, leave the situation of Ihram and enter into Ihram again before Hajj. The Umrah has to be done during the months of Hajj but before the Hajj days. Once Umrah is done, he can leave the state of Ihram. After he is done with Umrah, The Mutamatti shall clip their hair to exit the Ihram.
A Mutamatti is liable to offer an animal sacrifice. However, Allah Almighty has briefed in Quran that if a person cannot offer a sacrifice, he shall fast for 10 days. He can keep a fast for three days of Hajj. The remaining 7 fast can be kept by him after he returns to his home. May Allah accept our worships and guide us all to the correct path. Ameen.