Diabetes is a chronic and fatal condition in which there is metabolic derangement. Glucose is the most common sugar in our blood and it is responsible for providing ample energy to carry out our daily activities. Glucose is formed in the muscles, liver and obtained from the food we eat. In Diabetes basically, there is an excess of sugar (glucose) in blood and it is a very common condition these days due to the increase in consumption of fatty, processed and sugary foods. Many of you might not be aware of the condition unless you face some serious symptoms. There are two types of diabetes. Type I and type II. Both are different in terms of their symptoms and treatment. The following text will describe the two types separately. The reason of diabetes may be either:
- Insufficient insulin to absorb the produced glucose and take it in to use the body
- Cells do not respond to insulin.
TYPE 1 DIABETES
This type is also known as “Insulin dependent diabetes” or “juvenile diabetes”.
It occurs in children or young adults, younger than 30yrs of age but sometimes it is also seen in adults.
Only about 5% of the people have this type.
The body fails to produce adequate insulin, therefore, the patient needs to take insulin their whole life.
This is the reason why glucose starts accumulating in the blood leading to type 1 diabetes.
This occurs because the body’s immune system which is responsible for protection against different virus and bacteria attacks the cells respond to produce insulin. This is why a patient with type 1 diabetes faces frequent infections.
It is always treated with taking insulin and adjusting meals.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes: Symptoms are sudden and occur in a very short time. Following are the distinguishing features:
- Increased hunger and thirst
- Weight loss besides normal eating
- Blurred vision
- Numbness of feet and hands
- Frequent infections
- These patients are not obese
TYPE 2 DIABETES
This is also known as “adult onset diabetes” or “insulin independent diabetes” as it occurs mostly in adults but individuals from any age group might be affected.
Type II diabetes is seen usually in middle aged or older people.
It makes up around 95% of the people with this type of diabetes.
Overweight individuals and those with less physical activity are the targets.
It occurs either due to resistance to insulin because of failure to respond to insulin or failure to produce insulin by the pancreas.
The disease worsens with age.
It can be controlled with exercises, meal adjustments, and diabetic medications.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes: The symptoms develop over a period of time and are very obvious from the start. Some prominent features are as follows:
- Frequent urination, mostly at night
- Delayed wound healing
- Weight loss or gain
- Sometimes it is asymptomatic and may go unnoticed proving to be fatal.
- It is associated with overweight individuals so obesity is a major risk factor.